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Quality and Quantity of Sleep, Sleepiness and Cardiovascular Parameters of Bed Partners of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Cross-sectional data from the SLEEP-PARTNERS study
Bed partners of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) frequently report sleep disruptions due to the loud snoring. It is not clear, however, the profile of sleep quality, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and potential cardiovascular consequences of OSA in the bed partners.
This is a cross-sectional analysis exploring sleep quality and quantity, excessive daytime sleepiness, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and endothelial function in the bed partners of patients with untreated OSA.
Consecutive bed partners from both genders of patients with moderate to severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour) were recruited. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the wrist actigraphy for 1 week (Actiwatch 2TM) were used to assess the sleep quality and quantity, respectively. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to determine the subjective daytime sleepiness. 24hs-ABPM and a marker of endothelial function, namely flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery by ultrasound, were assessed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk. All measurements were performed without access to the severity of OSA.
We evaluated 26 bed partners (age: 47±10 years, 85% females, body mass index: 27±4 kg/m2). The mean PSQI score and sleep duration were 7±3 and 6.5±1.1 hours/night. 84% presented low sleep quality, 32% presented short sleep duration (<6hs) and 35% complained of excessive daytime sleepiness. The mean systolic 24-hs, daytime and nighttime blood pressure were 111±10, 115±10 and 103±10mmHg, respectively. Interestingly, 42% presented systolic non-dipping pattern (<10% reduction in blood pressure during sleep compared with during the awake period). The mean FMD varied from -1.87 to 16.55%, revealing that 52% of them presented endothelial dysfunction.
The bed partners of OSA patients presented a huge percentage of poor sleep quality and a significant proportion of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, non-dipping blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction. These findings suggest that OSA may contribute to sleep and cardiovascular consequences in bed partners.
Obstructive sleep apnea, bed partners, consequences.
Sara Quaglia de Campos Giampá, Valéria Costa-Hong, Lunara Silva Freitas, Sofia Fontanello Furlan, Indira Fernandes Braga Azam, Luiz Aparecido Bortolotto, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Luciano Ferreira Drager