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The effect of urbanization on sleep and metabolic indicators.


The urbanization process has been associated with an increase in risk factors to non-communicable diseases.


To evaluate the sleep, biological rhythms and metabolism among workers of an Amazonian community of Acre, according to different degrees of urbanization.


A cross-sectional study of rural and urban residents (22 and 20, respectively) from the municipality of Xapuri, Acre. Sociodemographic, life habits, anthropometric, metabolic parameter variables (triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, fasting glucose and insulin resistance), chronotype and food intake were evaluated. Sleep, light exposure and activity levels variables were obtained by actigraphy and daily activity protocols during 10 days. The studied groups were compared with Student’s t and Mann-Whitney tests for anthropometric variables, food intake and metabolic parameters. ANOVA for repeated measures tests were performed to compare the sleep variables, light and acitivity levels between groups.


Urban residents showed higher averages to all anthropometric variables, fasting glucose levels, fasting insulin and insulin resistance (p<0.05) when compared with rural residents. The lipid profile showed no statistically relevant differences among the groups. Rural residents showed higher averages of sleep length (p<0.01) and earlier sleep onset (p=0.01).


The findings show an association between urbanization and the presence of risk factors like overweight, serum lipid level alteration, and insulin resistance.


Urbanization; non-communicable diseases; metabolic parameters; sleep; rural communities.


Área Clínica


Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey - - Grã-Bretanha (Reino Unido), Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Esporte, Universidade Federal do Acre - Acre - Brasil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo - Sao Paulo - Brasil, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University - - Suécia


Andressa Juliane Martins, Cheryl Isherwood, Suleima Pedroza Vasconcelos, Debra Jean Skene, Arne Lowden, Claudia Roberta de Castro Moreno