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Prevalence of insomnia in shift workers: a systematic review
Insomnia is a sleep disorder of high prevalence with somatic and psychic repercussions.
The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of insomnia in shift workers, as well as the following associated variables: sex, age, marital status, profession and shift work schedule.
A systematic review was performed using the descriptors "insomnia" AND "shift work", in the databases PubMed, Scielo and LILACS. The inclusion criteria were: studies addressing the frequency of insomnia in shift workers; studies published from 01/01/2008 onwards, with the intention of contemplating the most updated studies; studies in English or Portuguese languages; studies with participants aged 18 years or older; studies conducted only with human beings. The exclusion criteria were: review articles; studies whose participants presented other comorbidities that justified the presence of insomnia; studies whose participants were undergoing treatment for sleep disorders; studies with pregnant women and articles without abstracts.
From 402 studies identified, 4 were included in the analysis, with a total sample of 9,410 participants, of which 3,674 shift workers. The prevalence of insomnia in shift workers ranged from 12.8% to 76.4%, higher than that estimated for the general population. In addition, there was a higher prevalence among women and single people, and there was no significant variation with age and occupation. On the other hand, the relation between the shift work schedule and the onset of insomnia still seems controversial.
The present systematic review identified a high prevalence of insomnia in shift workers compared to the general population. Moreover, a higher prevalence was observed among women and single people and there was no significant variation with age and occupation. On the other hand, the relationship between shift work schedule and the emergence of insomnia still seems controversial. This review therefore suggests an important association between insomnia and shift work, with the following consequences: a decrease in professional and social performance and repercussions on physical and mental health, which reinforces the need for early identification and intervention on the potential damage to the health of these workers.
Keywords: Insomnia. Shift work. Prevalence. Worker.
Renata Silva Brito, Cristiane Dias , Cristina Salles, Agenor Afonso Filho